An Experience with 1,4-Butanediol. '1,4-butanediol and the DEA' by BDO Erowid - a Global Drug Information Resource We're an educational non-profit working to provide a balanced, honest look at psychoactive drugs and drug use--to reduce harms, improve benefits, & support reasonable policies.
Gamma-butyrolactone is a GHB ‘prodrug’. This means that it is converted into GHB in the body, so it has very similar effects and harms. 1,4-BD (1,4-butanediol) is another GHB prodrug although this is much rarer. It is likely to share the effects and harms of GHB.
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The invention concerns a process for preparing 1,4-butanediol by continuous catalytic hydrogenation of 1,4-butinediol in that 1,4-butinediol is reacted with hydrogen in the liquid continuous phase in the presence of a heterogeneous hydrogenation catalyst at temperatures of between 20 and 300 °C, a pressure of between 1 and 200 bar and values of the liquid-side mass transfer coefficients kLa ... The invention concerns a process for preparing 1,4-butanediol by continuous catalytic hydrogenation of 1,4-butinediol in that 1,4-butinediol is reacted with hydrogen in the liquid continuous phase in the presence of a heterogeneous hydrogenation catalyst at temperatures of between 20 and 300 °C, a pressure of between 1 and 200 bar and values of the liquid-side mass transfer coefficients kLa ... Under strong oxygen deprivation nearly 30% of the consumed carbon is converted into 1,4‐butanediol, whereas an increase in oxygen supply results in 1,4‐butanediol reduction of 77%. Strikingly, increasing oxygen availability leads to strong increase of main by‐product acetate as well as doubled carbon dioxide formation.

Some side effects of butanediol are serious breathing problems, coma, amnesia, combativeness, confusion, agitation, vomiting, seizures, and very slow heartbeat. People who use butanediol on a regular basis and then stop may experience withdrawal symptoms such as sleep problems (insomnia), tremor, and anxiety. May 01, 2019 · After latanoprost acid reaches the systemic circulation, it is primarily metabolized by the liver to the 1,2-dinor and 1,2,3,4-tetranor metabolites via fatty acid β-oxidation. Butanediol mononitrate is metabolized to 1,4-butanediol and nitric oxide.

During this time, an estimated 21,169 workers in 369 facilities were potentially exposed to 1,4-butanediol (NIOSH, 1976). These estimates were based on direct observations of actual use of 1,4-butanediol, on observations of the use of trade-name products containing 1,4-butanediol, and on observations of the use of [1,4-Butanediol Diglycidyl Ether] [2425-79-8] | Buy and find out price and availability, MSDS, properties of TCI's high quality specialty chemicals. Aug 13, 2013 · 1,4-Butanediol is known to be nonmutagenic, nonsensitizing, and a slight irritant. 23, 24 No carcinogenic potential has been identified by tests performed on its metabolites. Neurotoxic adverse effects were observed in animals with a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 100 mg/kg per day (determined according to oral administration in mice). Aug 23, 2019 · The effects of GHB can last from one and a half hours, up to three hours, or even longer if large doses have been consumed. Long term effects. Little is known about the long-term effects of GHB due to the short time it has been used as a recreational drug. This study covers the world outlook for 1,4 Butanediol across more than 190 countries. For each year reported, estimates are given for the latent demand, or potential industry earnings (P.I.E.), for the country in question (in millions of U.S. dollars), the percent share the country is of the region, and of the globe. 1,4-Butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE) is a long chain compound with two highly reactive epoxy groups, which can be successfully utilized to prepare advanced composites. It is commonly used as a reac-tive diluent for epoxy resin due to its reactivity and low cost. BDDE can react with the active groups on The number of seizures with GHB was 743, GBL 343, and 1,4-butanediol 236. In 2004 the number of deaths was 6 with heroin, 7 with GHB, 32 with amphetamine, 6 with cocaine, and one with methadone. One patient with GHB poisoning died during hospital care.

The first high-temperature endotherm (T1) of polyurethane hard segment based on 4,4‘-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and 1,4-butanediol (BD) was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Nov 25, 2014 · There are two popular substitutes for GHB; 1,4-butanediol, and gamma-Butyrolactone. Both of these substitutes are distributed as GHB, and have similar effects as GHB, but there is a major difference in how they work. 1,4-butanediol does not become an intoxicating agent until after it binds to the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver. Nov 04, 2019 · Systemically, latanoprost acid is further metabolized in the liver to the 1,2-dinor and 1,2,3,4-tetranor metabolites via fatty acid β-oxidation. 1 2 Butanediol mononitrate is metabolized to 1,4-butanediol and nitric oxide; the 1,4-butanediol metabolite is further oxidized to succinic acid and enters the tricarboxylic acid cycle. 1 3. Stability ... , 1, 4-Butanediol For Synthesis Product must be used in compliance with the intended use statement listed on the product or its accompanying product information. Specifications , The long-term confusing glass transition temperature, T g, and specific heat capacity, ΔC p, of the 4,4‘-diisocyanatodiphenylmethane (MDI) and 1,4-butanediol (BD) hard segment in segment polyurethanes have been clearly evidenced by using a new series of completely phase-mixed polyurethanes while being extrapolated to 100% hard segment content. Define indigeneDec 04, 2018 · After latanoprost acid reaches the systemic circulation, it is primarily metabolized by the liver to the 1,2-dinor and 1,2,3,4-tetranor metabolites via fatty acid β-oxidation. Butanediol mononitrate is metabolized to 1,4-butanediol and nitric oxide. The metabolite 1,4-butanediol is further oxidized to succinic acid and enters the tricarboxylic ... During this time, an estimated 21,169 workers in 369 facilities were potentially exposed to 1,4-butanediol (NIOSH, 1976). These estimates were based on direct observations of actual use of 1,4-butanediol, on observations of the use of trade-name products containing 1,4-butanediol, and on observations of the use of

Gamma-butyrolactone is a GHB ‘prodrug’. This means that it is converted into GHB in the body, so it has very similar effects and harms. 1,4-BD (1,4-butanediol) is another GHB prodrug although this is much rarer. It is likely to share the effects and harms of GHB.

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Oct 11, 2019 · Recent studies have shown a decrease in the incidence of GHB intoxications. Public health measures to inform young people of the risks of GHB and governmental restrictions on the sale of GHB and its precursors (GBL and 1,4-butanediol [1,4-BD]) have been helpful in promoting this decrease.
1. IDENTIFICATION OF THE MATERIAL AND SUPPLIER 1.1 Product identifier Product name ARALDITE AV 138M-1 Synonym(s) 138 M-1 AV ARALDITE • AV 138M-1 1.2 Uses and uses advised against Use(s) ADHESIVE • EPOXY ADHESIVE • EPOXY RESIN SYSTEM • TWO COMPONENT EPOXY SYSTEM 1.3 Details of the supplier of the safety data sheet Supplier name AEROSPACE ... 1,4-butanediol dimethanesulfonate Busulfan 6.00 mg/mL 55-98-1 N/A N, N-dimethylacetamide, ... chronic effects from short and long term exposure Acute effects include ...
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Effects of short-term exposure The substance is irritating to the respiratory tract. The substance is severely irritating to the eyes and skin. Inhalation risk No indication can be given about the rate at which a harmful concentration of this substance in the air is reached on evaporation at 20°C. Effects of long-term or repeated exposure
Another paper states that 1,4-BDO can potentiate certain effects of ethanol and had its own pharmacological effects, even before the conversion to GHB. Here is the link to this paper. You can read them using sci-hub, if you don't have access to them otherwise. I use it occasionally and I don't think the risks are much worse than those of GHB usage. Response of experimental animals to human carcinogens: an ... 1,4-butanediol dimethanesulphonate. ... effect of human carcinogens in long-term animal experiments.
Search results for 1 4-butanediol at Sigma-Aldrich. Attention: Some customers are currently experiencing long page load times.
Oct 29, 2013 · Typically, effects are first felt within 10-20 minutes of the initial ingestion; 45 minutes to 1½ hours later effects begin to level off and the user starts to experience decreasing effects. After-effects like grogginess and sleepiness are felt for as little as two hours or up to twelve hours after use. Long-term effects Little is known about the long-term effects of GHB use. However, it is known that regular use can lead to tolerance and dependence, which means larger amounts of GHB are needed to get the same effect. Which also increases the likelihood of overdose. Withdrawal
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Product name : 1,4-Butanediol CAS-No. : 110-63-4 ... Workers Skin contact Long-term systemic effects 19mg/kg BW/d Workers Inhalation Long-term systemic effects 136 mg/m3
Response of experimental animals to human carcinogens: an ... 1,4-butanediol dimethanesulphonate. ... effect of human carcinogens in long-term animal experiments.
These serious side effects include the inability to control the bowels, vomiting, mental changes, sedation, agitation, combativeness, memory loss, serious breathing and heart problems, fainting, seizures, coma, and death. The effects can be made worse by alcohol or narcotics such as morphine, heroin, and others.
1,4-Butanediol diglycidyl ether coupling of carbohydrates to sepharose: Affinity adsorbents for lectins and glycosidases (Analytical Biochemistry, 1977) Molecular weight distribution of a branched epoxy polymer: 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride (Macromolecules, 1989) 1,4 Butanediol has psychoactive effects if ingested, it is rapidly converted into GHB via the alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes. It causes sedation, euphoria, central nervous system depression.
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We have recently published 7ᵗʰ Edition market research report on 1, 4-Butanediol Market. For purchase inquiry and free sample pages email us at: [email protected] The report titled, “Global 1, 4-Butanediol Market 2019”
The Aztecs used the term "teonanacatl" meaning "flesh of the gods" to describe hallucinogenic mushrooms. Historians have proposed that Aztec spiritual leaders used these hallucinogens to induce an altered state of consciousness that they believed would allow them to communicate with their gods and other spirits. 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) See gamma-hydroxybutrate 2C series phenylamines Derivatives of the phenethylamine class of drugs with hallucinogenic properties abstinence Refraining from licit and/or illicit drug use acute effect Effects that develops rapidly following ingestion of a drug or substance as a result of short term exposure
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Aug 23, 2019 · The effects of GHB can last from one and a half hours, up to three hours, or even longer if large doses have been consumed. Long term effects. Little is known about the long-term effects of GHB due to the short time it has been used as a recreational drug.
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Some side effects of butanediol are serious breathing problems, coma, amnesia, combativeness, confusion, agitation, vomiting, seizures, and very slow heartbeat. People who use butanediol on a regular basis and then stop may experience withdrawal symptoms such as sleep problems ( insomnia ), tremor, and anxiety. On January 27, 2000, a Utah man died from taking Zen, a product containing sucol-B, an alternative name for 1,4-butanediol. The man initially purchased the product in July 1999 as a sleep aid from a local health food store and was unaware that the product contained a GHB analog.
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Because of these pharmacokinetic differences, GBL tends to be more potent and faster-acting than GHB, but has a shorter duration; whereas the related compound 1,4-butanediol (1,4-B) tends to be slightly less potent, slower to take effect but longer-acting than GHB.
1,4-Butanediol (BDO) does metabolize into GHB, but the two do NOT have the same effects. BDO is a much "dirtier" high - alot of alcohol-like dizzyness, a tendency to nausea in higher doses, etc. I used BDO daily for close to a year, and eventually began to notice some long term effects which scared the piss out of me and ended up with me taking ... Long-term growth in Europe is expected to be 4%/year. Demand in the first half of 2008 was good with PBT and TPU markets performing well although the spandex fibre market was weak. However, demand slowed considerably in the second half of the year as the credit crisis and destocking took effect.
1, 4-Butanediol For Synthesis Product must be used in compliance with the intended use statement listed on the product or its accompanying product information. Specifications
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If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to reset your password The particle size of α‐Al 2 O 3 platelets decreases from 3 to 4 µm to 100 to 200 nm by increasing the number concentration of seeds. In the case of α‐Fe 2 O 3 seeding, the effect of seeding on the size of α‐Al 2 O 3 particles closely resembles the effects obtained with α‐Al 2 O 3 seeding. Regardless of seed concentration, high ...
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GHB is abused for euphoric, sedative and anabolic (body-building) effects. GHB and two of its precursors, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), have been involved in poisonings, overdoses, date rapes and deaths.
Formaldehyde exposure may potentially cause a variety of symptoms and adverse health effects, such as eye, nose, throat, and skin irritation, coughing, wheezing, and allergic reactions. Long-term exposure to high levels of formaldehyde has been associated with cancer in humans and laboratory animals. Formaldehyde can affect people differently. There was then a resurgence in the use of GHB and accompanying reports of GHB-associated adverse effects and deaths with the creation of clandestine labs (FDA, 1997). Subsequently, the GHB precursors γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD) began to be marketed as natural, nontoxic dietary supplements (FDA 1999a, b).
Dec 04, 2014 · <1> A method for producing 1,4-butanediol, comprising biologically producing 1,4-butanediol in a culture medium for fermentation of an organism capable of producing 1,4-butanediol, at least partially removing each of a bacterial cell, a salt content and water from said fermentation culture medium to obtain a refined raw material 1,4-butanediol ...
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1,4-Butanediol is also used as a recreational drug known by some users as "One Comma Four", "Liquid Fantasy", "One Four Bee" or "One Four B-D-O". It exerts effects similar to γ-hydroxybutyrate ( GHB ), which is a metabolic product of 1,4-butanediol. Some side effects of butanediol are serious breathing problems, coma, amnesia, combativeness, confusion, agitation, vomiting, seizures, and very slow heartbeat. People who use butanediol on a regular basis and then stop may experience withdrawal symptoms such as sleep problems (insomnia), tremor, and anxiety.
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Long-term effects. Little is known about the long-term effects of GHB use. However, it is known that regular use can lead to tolerance and dependence, which means larger amounts of GHB are needed to get the same effect. Using GHB with other drugs. GHB + alcohol or benzodiazepines: chance of overdose is greatly increased. Common effects of GHB. Generally, the effects of GHB are felt within 15 minutes and last for around three hours. GHB effects vary greatly depending on the amount used. A small increase in amount can result in a dramatic increase in its effects. This is one of the most dangerous aspects of using GHB.
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